What Is Lithium Carbonate CAS 554-13-2 ?

Lithium carbonate, also known as “white petroleum,” is widely used in various fields such as new energy vehicles, energy storage, glass, ceramics, and pharmaceuticals. Lithium carbonate is a common inorganic lithium salt, a form in which lithium exists, typically as a white powder. It is not easily oxidized or deliquescent in air, exhibiting good thermal stability and chemical stability, making it easy to store and transport. Based on quality, it can be divided into battery-grade lithium carbonate and industrial-grade lithium carbonate. The upstream of the lithium carbonate industry chain mainly involves the purification and refinement of lithium salts from lithium minerals (mainly distributed in Jiangxi and Sichuan provinces) and salt lake brines (mainly distributed in Qinghai Province), including lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, and lithium chloride. Downstream in the industry chain, lithium carbonate is primarily used to manufacture cathode materials for lithium batteries, as well as electrolyte solutions, glass, ceramics, air conditioning refrigerants, rare earth electrolyte additives, and other products.

Lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) is normally a colorless monoclinic crystal or white powder. It has a density of 2.11g/cm3, with melting and boiling points at 723°C and 1200°C respectively under standard atmospheric pressure. Its solubility in water is relatively low, it is non-hygroscopic, and its solubility decreases with increasing temperature. With a relative molecular mass of 73.89, it is soluble in dilute acids but insoluble in common organic solvents (such as ethanol, methanol, acetone, etc.). Additionally, lithium carbonate does not readily form double salts with other carbonates, making it easier to separate from other salts and obtain purer products. As a basic raw material, it is widely used in batteries, ceramics, metallurgy, pharmaceuticals, catalysts, and is referred to as the “industrial MSG” or “white petroleum”.

The lithium carbonate industry chain primarily involves lithium resource exploitation, lithium salt extraction, purification and chemical conversion of lithium salt products, and the manufacturing and production of end products. Upstream lithium resources mainly include land-based lithium mines (lithium-bearing minerals such as spodumene and lithium mica) as well as lithium-containing brines from salt lakes. Lithium-bearing minerals and brines are processed through a series of production processes to obtain corresponding lithium salt products such as lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, and lithium chloride. After further purification and conversion, lithium salts can be transformed into intermediate products including cathode materials (ternary materials, lithium iron phosphate, lithium manganese oxide, etc.), electrolytes, metallic lithium, etc. Some intermediate products are further processed to become end products such as lithium batteries, which are applied in various fields including new energy vehicles, 3C digital products, energy storage, glass, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, etc. The downstream of the lithium carbonate industry chain is divided into areas such as power batteries, energy storage, consumer electronics, and traditional applications.

According to the usage and differences in industry standards, lithium carbonate products with different component contents are generally classified into two categories: industrial-grade lithium carbonate and battery-grade lithium carbonate.
Industrial-grade lithium carbonate is widely used in industries such as glass, ceramics, and aluminum electrolysis.
Battery-grade lithium carbonate is a high-purity lithium carbonate with a lithium carbonate content of not less than 99.50%. It is the main raw material for the preparation of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Adding battery-grade lithium carbonate to the electrolyte can improve the lifespan and safety of lithium-ion batteries. These batteries have the advantages of high energy density, low self-discharge, high output power, and long lifespan. They are widely used in new energy vehicles, mobile phones, cameras, and various household appliances.

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